In short: the nocache middleware aims to disable browser caching by setting several headers.

The “attack”

This module doesn’t exactly protect a specific attack. It prevents users from getting cached versions of your files (like old JavaScript).

For example, imagine you have a front-end web app that serves JavaScript. One day, you discover that one of your JavaScript libraries has a vulnerability, so you upgrade it and update your site. Unfortunately, there are some cases where users can get old, cached versions of your code, which might still have the vulnerability.

Caching has lots of benefits, but it can cause users to get stale versions.

The headers

This module deals with four caching headers.

  1. Cache-Control is a header that has many directives. For example, Cache-Control: max-age=864000 will tell browsers to cache the response for 10 days. In those 10 days, browsers will pull from their caches. Setting this header to Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate, proxy-revalidate will obliterate caching, as far as this header is concerned.
  2. Surrogate-Control is another header that CDNs respect. You can use it to tell intermediate caches to eschew caching.
  3. Pragma is a legacy HTTP header. Setting Pragma: no-cache will tell supported browsers to stop caching the response. It has fewer features than Cache-Control but it can better support old browsers.
  4. Expires specifies when the content should be considered out of date, or expired. Setting this to 0 will tell browsers the content expires immediately. In other words, they shouldn’t cache it.

Absent from this list is the ETag header, which is a pretty safe caching mechanism.

Read more:

The code

Helmet’s noCache is a relatively simple middleware that will set the four HTTP headers noted above: Cache-Control, Surrogate-Control, Pragma, and Expires.

You can use this module as part of Helmet:

// Make sure you run "npm install helmet" to get the Helmet package.
const helmet = require('helmet')


You can also use it as a standalone module:

// Make sure you run "npm install nocache" to get the nocache package.
const noCache = require('nocache')


This header is not included in the default Helmet bundle.